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About Us

Analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants is of interest given the likelihood that both the medicinal effects and adverse health effects of cannabis consumption may be dictated by the concentration and interplay of certain phytocannabinoids. There is international concern over research findings suggesting that contemporary cannabis cultivation is biased towards plants with high levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the cannabinoid responsible for most of the psychoactive effects of cannabis, and negligible levels of cannabidiol (CBD), and other trace cannabinoids, that have therapeutic potential and may counteract some of the unpleasant effects of THC [1]. A general theme of these concerns is whether cannabis is somehow a “different” drug to that consumed in previous decades, and whether increased THC content and/or diminished levels of CBD and other trace cannabinoids is accentuating adverse effects of cannabis on mental health.

Research over the past few decades in the United Kingdom, Europe, the United States and New Zealand, has identified an increase in the concentration of THC in herbal cannabis [2][3][4][5][6][7]. For example, US data indicate that herbal cannabis contained an average of 3.4% THC and 0.3% CBD in 1993, while in 2008 THC levels more than doubled to 8.8% with CBD remaining low (0.4%) [5]. There is, however, evidence of a stabilisation in THC content in the UK and parts of Europe since peaks in the late 1990s/early 2000s [3][8]. There also remains considerable variability in THC levels within and across studies, as well as according to location, season, quality and freshness and type of cannabis (e.g., very high levels in Dutch niederweetsinsemilla vs. ditchweed vs. hashish[2][5][6][7][9][10][11]. Despite these caveats, more recent short-term studies of cannabis seizures in disparate geographic regions confirm a consistent pattern of a predominance of THC and low or negligible levels of other important cannabinoids such as CBD, particularly in samples identified as sinsemilla [12][13][14]. While there have been sporadic early reports of individual samples containing high THC levels [15], it has been proposed that this current pattern may be linked to a number of factors, including selective breeding of certain cannabis strains with a high THC/low CBD level, a preference for female plants (sinsemilla), the rise of widespread intensive indoor cannabis cultivation (a controlled growing environment), and global availability of seeds and equipment over the internet [6][7][8][9].

A high THC/low CBD cannabinoid profile has been linked to a number of putative outcomes, including increased risks for cannabis dependence [16], and increases in treatment-seeking for cannabis-related problems [8], although there is little research systematically addressing the public health impacts of the use of different strengths and types of cannabis. There is suggestive evidence from analyses of cannabinoids in hair samples that regular users with a high THC/low CBD profile in hair may have increased vulnerability to psychosis relative to users with a more balanced THC/CBD profile [17][18][19]. This is consistent with laboratory research showing that CBD may prevent or inhibit the psychotogenic and memory-impairing effects of THC [20][21][22]. While the evidence for the ameliorating effects of CBD is not universal [1][18][23] it is thought that consumption of high THC/low CBD cannabis may predispose users towards adverse psychiatric effects, relative to the use of cannabis with more moderate THC/higher CBD content.